An exhibition marking the 27th anniversary of
the toppling of Enver Hoxha's statue on 20 February 1991
"Communism in Its Time" describes the rise and fall of communist movements in the 20th century. Communism as an ideology mobilized millions of people and tormented over 100 million other victims worldwide.
After the World War II, Albania embraced the political system of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, experiencing the strengthening of the Communist Party and the establishment of the communist regime. Albania had one of the most repressive dictatorships in South-Eastern Europe that lasted for almost 46 years, from December 1945 to March 1991.
With his coming to power, dictator Enver Hoxha began taking immediate measures to increase his power through terror, violence, propaganda, the spread of fear among the people, and the elimination of all his political opponents. In addition to the indoctrination of the population, religious practice was banned and relations with Yugoslavia (1948), the Soviet Union (1961) and China (1978) broke up, pushing the country to total isolation and extreme poverty.
The exhibition prints have been made in sizes that are suitable for display in schools and public places, such as municipality halls, public libraries etc. Individuals are invited to reflect on the dark attributes of communism and dictatorships that shaped the 20th century.
The author of the exhibition is Gerd Koenen, a German historian.
Information about the Exhibition
The exhibition will be presented for the first time in Albania on 19 February 2018, at 18:00 in the National Historical Museum. It will remain open for public viewing until 28 February.
The exhibition includes 25 posters with over 200 historical photos, documents and QR codes linking to online resources.
The exhibition will be available for presentation at other venues starting March 2018. The poster set in DIN A1 format can be ordered at firstname.lastname@example.org.
ComMuniSm In ITS TIME
18:00 – 18:30
18:30 – 18:45
18:45 – 19:00
19:00 – 19:30
Language: Albanian, English, German
Venue: Dictatorship Pavilion, Tirana National Museum
Contact: Matilda Karçanaj, Project Coordinator, IDMC
Phone: +355 69 268 7226 | E-mail: email@example.com
Registration of the participants
"Communism in Its Time" exhibition presentation
"Why did Albania Remain Stalinist?"
Time to visit the exhibition accompanied by reception & non-formal discussion with the speakers
End of the activity
This exhibition was prepared by the "Cold War" Berlin College with the support of the Federal Foundation for the Study of the Communist Dictatorship in Eastern Germany. The exhibition was presented for the first time in March 2016 in Germany and was made available to schools and other institutions for extracurricular projects. It is equipped with more than 180 photographs and documents, as well as QR-barcodes, which lead to film documents on the Internet. The exhibition thus offers an overview of the Cold War that marked the second half of XX century on name of global competition.
The exhibition presents the main moments of the East-West relations between 1945 and 1991, from the end of the World War II to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The exhibition will showcase in photographs and facts the conflict between the societies involved in the Cold War and the consequences of this war to present day.
In order to comes as close as possible to the Albanian public, four posters in Albanian language have been added to the original exhibition, with facts and photographs which clearly show the role of Albania in the Cold War and the consequences of the decisions of the communist regime of that time. This exhibition comes to Albania by IDMC.
"Cold War" Berlin College was founded in 2015 as a meeting point for international academic exchange and for the study of the Cold War that marked the second half of XX century on name of global competition, whose consequences could be seen until nowadays.
The Federal Foundation for the Study of the Communist Dictatorship in Eastern Germany through this project and other activities aims a full confrontation with the reasons, history and consequences of communist dictatorships in Germany and Europe.
Institute for Democracy, Media & Culture (IDMC) aims through creative projects awareness of young people and the Albanian society about the communist dictatorship and the importance of historical memory.
EThe exhibition has as author Prof. Dr. Bernd Greiner, historian, researcher of political sciences and americanist. Greiner, professor at the Hamburg University since 1989, Institute for Social Sciences, heads the new College "Cold War" in Berlin.
Curator of the exhibition, Dr. Ulrich Mählert, director of the department of science and international cooperation at the Federal Foundation for the Study of the Communist Dictatorship in Eastern Germany.
Preparation of the extra posters for the role of Albania in The Cold War was done by the historian Prof. Dr. Petrit Nathanaili, the History Department at the University of Tirana. Adjustment of the exhibition text was made by Dr. Enriketa Papa and Dr. Jonila Godole. Photos were provided in the Central State Archive and the Albanian Telegraphic Agency.
The exhibition can be presented in public places, schools, institutions and libraries. It can also appear within the public debates, film screenings and documentaries, interviews with eyewitnesses of the time, presentations of books etc..
Information of interest
The rights of distribution of the exhibition in the Albanian language are reserved to IDMC. For all those who are interested to present the exhibition on Albanian institutions should send an official request to the office of IDMC, by mail or e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Institute for Democracy, Media & Culture
Address: Bardhok Biba St.
Entrance A, 11th Floor, Tirana, Albania
COLD WAR: Reasons, History, Consequences
The exhibition "Propaganda during the Communist Dictatorship" presents aspects of political manipulation of the masses by the communist state using various forms of propaganda, such as articles and photographs in the press, official ceremonies, caricatures etc.
The propaganda on the Party's achievements and the people's contribution to socialism in Albania were accompanied by the destruction of private property and the glorification of the Party's role and its party-state leader, Enver Hoxha. It aimed to show the supremacy of communism over capitalism. Determining the role of propaganda in the creation of the New Man, who ought stick to the line of the Party and Marxism-Leninism, is of special importance to show how people were suppressed and their freedom of speech, lacking.
It was also used to create a uniformed society where class struggle was employed as a tool for injecting Party ideals and for eliminating political opponents. While the people were suffering the consequences of the failure of the centralized economic system, the lack of freedom of speech and political pluralism, and the marked indoctrination of the younger generation with Marxist-Leninist ideology, the propaganda of time shadowed all the failures and negative effects of the system by reflecting only the economic achievements and happiness characterizing the Albanian society. Only the collapse of the regime would put an end to this utopian reality.
The Communist Party of Albania (PKSH) was created on 8 November 1941 and renamed the Party of Labor of Albania (PPSH) in 1948. The Party's cult politics emphasized the Communist Party's leading role during the World War II in fighting Italian and German invaders. The magnificent remembrance of November 29th and various events during the war, especially of the congresses and plenums of the PKSH, were a clear expression of the fact that decisions were taken to consolidate its power, as in the Congress of Permet.
Anti-fascist insurgencies became the main source of legitimizing the coming of the PKSH after the World War II. By eliminating opposition voices, the PKSH paved the way for concentration of power in its hands. Any objection to the Party's directives was punishable by law and anyone who broke its line was considered "the People's Enemy" and them/their family condemned into exile, imprisonment or execution by firing squad. The party extended its power to every cell of the society. The press of the time was also put in its service, with newspaper headlines and slogans such as "Long Live the Party" or "Glory to PPSH" reflected the new reality designed and built by the Party-State.
The exhibition was made possible by the Institute for Democracy, Media & Culture (IDMC), whose work aims at raising the awareness of young people and Albanian society about the dictatorship and its consequences.
The Albanian Central State Archives helped provide archive documents and pictures, and staff assistance.
This exhibition was prepared by Brisejda Lala (PhD student) University of Tirana, as part of a one-year scholarship awarded by IDMC in 2017.
Its academic editors include Dr. Jonila Godole, director of IDMC and professor at the University of Tirana, and Dr. Gentiana Kera, professor at the University of Tirana, the Faculty of History and Philology, and researcher of the Albanian dictatorship period.
The layout was designed in collaboration with Iceberg Communication.
The authors are grateful to all the institutions and persons who helped make this exhibition possible: the Central State Archives (AQSH) for supplying most of the pictures and documents; the City of Durres Library and its staff for continuous assistance and for making available any magazines and newspapers within a very short time; all the people who helped develop this exhibition, especially Fatmiroshe Xhemalaj, a history expert, for her valuable advice.
All photos, documents, texts and graphic presentations of this exhibition are copyrighted and cannot be used without the permission of the authors.
If you have questions about this exhibition, please contact us: email@example.com.
Want to Show this Exhibition?
The exhibition "Propaganda during the Communist Dictatorship" can be ordered by the interested persons in the DIN A1 format for a symbolic price and presented within the school setting, indoors or outdoors. For further information, please contact us: firstname.lastname@example.org.
PROPAGANDA DURING THE COMMUNIST DICTATORSHIP